Guidance on Substrate and Supplements

mushroomsThis list is designed to provide helpful guidance to producers by indicating the most commonly used supplements and substrates, and how they fare within the CNG Standards for Mushroom Production.

This is not a comprehensive list! Nor is it the full CNG Mushroom Standards for substrate or supplements.

If you’re not sure whether a substrate or supplement you’re interested in using would be allowed under CNG standards, please contact the CNG office at 845 687 2058 or


Typically GMO: most likely prohibited unless certified organic


Corn gluten

Cottonseed meal

Soybean meal

Soybean oil

Corn distiller’s grain

Maize powder

The items above are prohibited unless certified organic or sourced directly from a farmer who will sign a Substrate Declaration.


Probably Fine

Straw (wheat, oats, rye)

Peanut meal, peanut shells

Grains (rye, wheat, millet, barley)

Oat bran

Wheat bran


Grape pumice

Spent grains from beer fermentation (barley and wheat)



Sawdust from non-treated wood

Wood chips


Coffee grounds


Pelletized sawdust, hardwood fuel pellets

Agricultural waste from a certified organic or Certified Naturally Grown operation

All substrates used in CNG operations must be from non-GMO sources and grown free of heavy metals.


Might be fine, but be cautious!

Rice bran, rice hulls

Vegetable oils